Our relationship with interactive technologies is changing. In the early days, we silently blamed ourselves for not knowing how to use computers. Today, we have learned that the problem is not in us but in the user interfaces that are hard to use. In the future, we will question why we need to use interactive systems in the first place, if we don’t enjoy them, if we do not see the value higher than the effort. We believe providing enjoyable experiences will become the core in design, but how to design for such experiences?
Eventually, we need to expand the design orientation from incrementally solving problems for an error-free and optimal performance towards creatively seeking potentials for human flourishing (e.g., Desmet and Hassenzahl 2012; Desmet and Pohlmeyer 2013).
The approach we have been developing since 2011 is called Experience Goal -Driven Design. It follows Hassenzahl’s assertion of “experience before product” (Hassenzahl 2010; 2013) and concentrates on highlighting meaningful experiences as high-level design goals in possibility-driven design practices (Lu 2018). In particular, we define the experience goal (Xgoal) as a conceptual instrument that concretizes intended momentary emotion or the meaningful relationship/bond that a person has with the designed product or service. It not only refers to momentary “experiencing” in operation and action levels from a hedonic perspective (e.g., exciting), but also stresses the long-term experience addressing in-depth meaning from a eudaimonic perspective (e.g., trust) (Mekler and Hornbæk 2016). Traditionally, the design goal of broad UX approaches (e.g., Preece, Rogers, and Sharp 2015; Hartson and Pyla 2012) is to remove the negative experiences (e.g., usability, security, reliability problems), whereas Xgoal aims to focus design on creating specific positive experiences.
According to Desmet and Schifferstein (2011), Xgoals underline two intertwined challenges in design practice: what experiences to design for (i.e., Xgoal setting) and how to evoke the targeted experiences by creating the conditions (i.e., Xgoal realisation). Xgoal setting and Xgoal realisation address the core of possibility-driven design, design abduction, in which designers constantly experiment with Xgoals and possible means to evoking a proposed experience until an appropriate match between the two emerge (Dorst 2015a; 2015b). Inevitably, the actual Xgoal-driven design process is iterative, fuzzy and complex. For better and easier understanding of Xgoal-driven design approach, we simplify it into the double diamond design structure: discover, define, ideation and implementation (see Figure 1).
Figure 1. Xgoal-driven design approach
Kaasinen et al. (2015b, 983) propose five different approaches to acquiring insight and inspiration for Xgoal setting:
1) company or brand image,
2) scientific understanding of human beings,
3) empathic understanding of the users’ world,
4) possibilities and challenges of a new technology,
5) reasons for product existence and envision of renewal.
In scientific literature, we can find several sets of cards for providing a spectrum of experiences (see Table 1). More examples are seen in Xgoal example list and Appendix (Table 2).
|Tools||Sources for setting Xgoals||Related theoretical models|
|Need cards||Seven psychological needs to categorise experiences (Hassenzahl 2014)||The three-level hierarchy of goals (Hassenzahl 2010, p.44)|
|Emotion cards||25 different positive emotions (Yoon, Desmet and Pohlmeyer 2013)||Positive Design Framework (Desmet and Pohlmeyer 2013)|
|Well-being determinant cards||Six factors known to increase well-being (Calvo and Peters 2015)||Framework for positive computing (Calvo and Peters 2015)|
|PLEX cards||22 categories of Playful Experiences (Lucero and Arrasvuori 2010)||PLEX framework ( Lucero and Arrasvuori 2010)|
Table 1. Different cards for providing a spectrum of experiences
Xgoal realisation is through ideation and implementation. The core of Xgoal realisation is to identify the triggers that can evoke the targeted experience. For example, to spend time with others is a trigger for the experience of relatedness. Triggers can be applied into specific context and developed into a concrete concept via different ideation methods, such as storytelling. Additionally, Xgoals provide the direction of concept evaluation. Experience evaluation method can be tailored according to the targeted Xgoals.
Xgoals supports designers to govern experiential design content in concept generation, prototyping and evaluation. In design practice, Xgoals are inevitably balanced with other design objectives, such as sustainability of product usage. The balance between Xgoals and other design objectives can be a future research topic of experience-focused design.
|YEAR||COMPANY||ASSIGNMENT||EXPERIENCE GOALS||DESIGN RESULTS|
|Konecranes||Hoist interaction design||Competence, Self-Esteem, Proudness||Interaction|
|Metso Automation||New UI design for process control system||Competence, Enjoyment, Connect- edness||UI
Work career path
|Rocla||E-learning tool for beginner forklift drivers||Confidence, Security, Stimulation Competence, Autonomy||UI|
|Fastems||Factory automation in 2042||Usefulness, Self-Esteem, Achieve- ment||Factory; services|
|Fastems||Factory automation in 2042||Self-Actualisation, Competence, Pleasure||A business model|
|Kone||Touchless elevator user inter- face for office buildings||Disruption, Discovery, Control||UI|
|Rolls-Royce||Thruster sales material||Trust, Engagement, Excitement||UI|
|Rolls-Royce||Thruster cover||Trust, Influence, Stimulation||Product lifecycle|
|Rolls-Royce||Monitors for information sharing||Connectivity, Engagement, Communication||UI|
|Rolls-Royce||Tugboat console redesign||Applicable: Trust, Competence. Radical: Proudness, Being in the Spotlight, Connection, Enjoyment||Product form; Interaction system|
|Fastems||Product identity||Wow, Proudness, Trust||Product style; Service touchpoint|
|Ruukki||Promoting a newconstruction material for engineers||Stimulation, Trust||Package; Events|
|Ruukki||Promoting a newconstruction material for architects||Stimulation, Delight, Ambition||Events|
|Konecranes||Mobile UI design for crane monitoring service||Relational, Empowering, Dynamic||UI|
|Kemppi||Mobile UI design for welding training||Pleasure, Self-Motivation, Pride||UI
|Konecranes||Service touchpoint||Worthiness, Engagement, Belongingness||Tangible interaction, Events|
|Valmet||Remote control room||Pride, Inspiration||UI|
|Rolls-Royce||Portable simulator||Sense of Direction, Expertise, Pride||UI, Events|
|Rolls-Royce||Internal celebration||Confidence, Belongingness, Excellence and Pride||Tangible interface, Events|
|VTT||UX tool for the research consultants||Connection, Empowerment, Sense of Usefulness, Discovery, and Excitement||UX card, Event|
Table 2. The Xgoals utilised in the students’ projects
Calvo, R. A., and Peters, D. 2015 Wellbeing Determinant Cards. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from http://www.positivecomputing.org/p/were-pleased-to-share-some-of-tools-and.html
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